Evidences on the efficacy and the effectiveness of the first generation COVID-19 vaccines in the clinical trials and real-world studies

Clinical Trials*, Epidemiology*
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Preprint
4.24

Jingxin Li* NHC Key laboratory of Enteric Pathogenic Microbiology, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.++School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

Zhuopei Li School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

Yawen Zhu School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

Li Zhou School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

Fengcai Zhu* NHC Key laboratory of Enteric Pathogenic Microbiology, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.++School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

Keywords: COVID-19; vaccines

Abstract

More than 300 COVID-19 vaccine candidates have been developed or are still in development. COVID-19 vaccines in the World Health Organization Emergency Use Listing and some other COVID-19 vaccine products under conditional approval by national regulatory authorities are already in largescale use, preventing populations from severe illness or death and inducing herd immunity to impact the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In this review, we systemically assess the vaccine efficacy and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in clinical trials or real-world studies, in various populations, including healthy adults, children, the elderly, pregnancy women, people with cancer, rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases, chronic hemodialysis, solid organ transplantation, and so on. In addition, we reviewed the available effectiveness evidence on the immunization strategies of COVID-19 vaccines in those who have previous infection history of SARS-CoV-2, and the enhanced effectiveness associated with various boosting immunization. We also discuss the unmet gaps about the persistence and spectrum of vaccine protection provided by the current available COVID-19 vaccines.

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