Hypertension can lead to a significant increase in the risk of cardiovascular events, with a high rate of disability and mortality. It is one of the common causes of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents, which seriously affect patients’ quality of life and lifespan. Currently, treatment strategies for hypertension are mainly based on medication and lifestyle interventions. The renal sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, and catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) provides a new concept for the treatment of hypertension. In recent years, studies on RDN have been carried out worldwide. This article reviews the latest preclinical research and clinical evidence.