A marked decline of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis infections in China: possible reasons from ecological determinant perspectives

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Junqiang Li College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China++International Joint Research Laboratory for Zoonotic Diseases of Henan, Zhengzhou 450046, China

Feifei Xu College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China

Yuancai Chen College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China

Md Robiul Karim Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur 1706, Bangladesh

Yilin Wang College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China

Kaihui Zhang College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China

Xiaoying Li College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China++International Joint Research Laboratory for Zoonotic Diseases of Henan, Zhengzhou 450046, China

Pitambar Dhakal Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal

Rongjun Wang College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China++International Joint Research Laboratory for Zoonotic Diseases of Henan, Zhengzhou 450046, China

Longxian Zhang* College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China++International Joint Research Laboratory for Zoonotic Diseases of Henan, Zhengzhou 450046, China


Abstract

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important global food-borne infectious diseases transmitted between humans and pigs. According to both national surveys and field prevalence investigations, the prevalence of the disease in China has decreased significantly in recent decades. The primary disease control measures are unquestionably health education and promotion, meat inspection, and chemotherapy. Some other factors that could also influence or have a fundamental impact on human and pig T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis have been identified, such as pig farming patterns shift and the human toilet revolution, which led to T. solium transmission routes being cut off. Pig farming practices have shifted from backyard to large-scale intensive farming, making it harder for pigs to come into contact with or consume human excreta. The human toilet revolution, aiming at increasing the use of sanitary toilets, would ensure hygienic separation of human excreta from human contact, and prevent human excreta from polluting the environment, feeds, or water. The occurrence of the human T. solium infections has been drastically reduced as a result of the social process. This article with the objective of identifying ecological determinants, in addition to the previously noted factors, leading to the cysticercosis decline in China.

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