Syncytial and Congregative Effects of Dengue and Zika Viruses on the Aedes Albopictus Cell Line Differ among the Viral Strains
Objective: Dengue viruses (DENV) and Zika viruses (ZIKV) are transmitted from human to human or from non-human primates to humans by mosquito biting, so the viral interaction with mosquito cells is one key step within the viral life cycle. Therefore, our objective is to know how DENV or ZIKV interacts with mosquito cells.
Methods: Immunofluorescence assay and a direct visualization system are combined to monitor the syncytial or congregative effects of DENVs and ZIKVs on C6/36 cells. we studied the cytopathic effects of DENVs and ZIKVs on the mosquito cells, C6/36 which are widely used in the laboratory for the infections of DENV and ZIKV.
Results: Our results show that all strains of DENV-1 and DENV-2, most DENV-4 and some DENV-3 strains caused syncytial effects on C6/36 cells, while some DENV-3 and DENV-4 strains, and all the tested ZIKV strains caused cell congregation after infection but no cell fusion. In addition, we detected a range of pH environments from 6.0 to 8.0 that support the virus-caused cell fusion and figured out that the optimal pH condition is 7.5 at which the viral production is also the best. Furthermore, viral replication may be required for DENV’s syncytial effects on C6/36 cells because the UV-inactivated virus failed to cause cell fusion.
Conclusion: Syncytial and congregative effects of DENV and ZIKV on the Aedes albopictus cells differ among the viral strains. Syncytial effects of DENV on C6/36 are important for viral replication.